This article is about one of the three European Communities that existed from 1958 until 2009. It is not to be confused with the present-day European Union which incorporated the European Communities in comunidad economica europea pdf. European Common Market”, “Common Market”, and “EEC” redirect here. For the EU’s internal market, see European Single Market.
For the type of trade bloc, see Single market. The information in this infobox covers the EEC’s time as an independent organisation. It does not give details of post-1993 operation within the EU as that is explained in greater length in the European Union and European Communities articles. De facto only, these cities hosted the main institutions but were not titled as capitals due to the EEC being primarily an international organisation. It was created by the Treaty of Rome of 1957. Upon the entry into force of the Maastricht Treaty in 1993, the EEC was renamed the European Community to reflect that it covered a wider range than economic policy.
The EEC was also known as the Common Market in the English-speaking countries and sometimes referred to as the European Community even before it was officially renamed as such in 1993. In the aim of creating a federal Europe two further communities were proposed: a European Defence Community and a European Political Community. Another crisis was triggered in regard to proposals for the financing of the Common Agricultural Policy, which came into force in 1962. The transitional period whereby decisions were made by unanimity had come to an end, and majority-voting in the Council had taken effect. On 1 July 1967 when the Merger Treaty came into operation, combining the institutions of the ECSC and Euratom into that of the EEC, they already shared a Parliamentary Assembly and Courts. The 1960s saw the first attempts at enlargement. In 1961, Denmark, Ireland, Norway and the United Kingdom applied to join the three Communities.
A year later, in February 1962, Spain attempted to join the European Communities. However, because Spain, then ruled by Francisco Franco was not a democracy, all members rejected the request in 1964. The four countries resubmitted their applications on 11 May 1967 and with Georges Pompidou succeeding Charles de Gaulle as French president in 1969, the veto was lifted. The Treaties of Rome had stated that the European Parliament must be directly elected, however this required the Council to agree on a common voting system first.
Parliament pressured for agreement and on 20 September 1976 the Council agreed part of the necessary instruments for election, deferring details on electoral systems which remain varied to this day. Shortly after its election, Parliament became the first Community institution to propose that the Community adopt the flag of Europe. Greece re-applied to join the community on 12 June 1975, following the restoration of democracy, and re-joined on 1 January 1981. With the prospect of further enlargement, and a desire to increase areas of co-operation, the Single European Act was signed by the foreign ministers on the 17 and 28 February 1986 in Luxembourg and the Hague respectively. The EU absorbed the European Communities as one of its three pillars.
The EEC’s areas of activities were enlarged and were renamed the European Community, continuing to follow the supranational structure of the EEC. However, after the Treaty of Maastricht, Parliament gained a much bigger role. Maastricht brought in the codecision procedure, which gave it equal legislative power with the Council on Community matters. After the entry into force of the Treaty of Lisbon in 2009 the pillar structure ceased to exist. You can help by adding to it. The main aim of the EEC, as stated in its preamble, was to “preserve peace and liberty and to lay the foundations of an ever closer union among the peoples of Europe”.
Progress on the customs union proceeded much faster than the twelve years planned. However, France faced some setbacks due to their war with Algeria. The six were France, West Germany, Italy and the three Benelux countries: Belgium, the Netherlands and Luxembourg. Member states are represented in some form in each institution. The Council is also composed of one national minister who represents their national government. There were three political institutions which held the executive and legislative power of the EEC, plus one judicial institution and a fifth body created in 1975.
1957 by the EEC but from 1967 onwards they applied to all three Communities. The Council represents governments, the Parliament represents citizens and the Commission represents the European interest. The EEC inherited some of the Institutions of the ECSC in that the Common Assembly and Court of Justice of the ECSC had their authority extended to the EEC and Euratom in the same role. There was greater difference between these than name: the French government of the day had grown suspicious of the supranational power of the High Authority and sought to curb its powers in favour of the intergovernmental style Council. Hence the Council had a greater executive role in the running of the EEC than was the situation in the ECSC. President Jacques Delors the last EEC Commission President. The Council of the European Communities was a body holding legislative and executive powers and was thus the main decision making body of the Community.
The Council was composed of one national minister from each member state. However the Council met in various forms depending upon the topic. For example, if agriculture was being discussed, the Council would be composed of each national minister for agriculture. They represented their governments and were accountable to their national political systems. The European Parliament held its first elections in 1979, slowly gaining more influence over Community decision making. In 1970 and 1975, the Budgetary treaties gave Parliament power over the Community budget. The Parliament’s members, up-until 1980 were national MPs serving part-time in the Parliament.