/Coal analysis proximate and ultimate pdf

Coal analysis proximate and ultimate pdf

Accurate results from proximate and ultimate analysis of coal, coke and biofuel are an important step in mining and processing operations. Ideally, these tests should comply with accepted international coal analysis proximate and ultimate pdf and be conducted under the strictest laboratory controls.

Moisture is the water that exists in the coal at the site, time, and under the conditions it is sampled. SGS experts determine the amount of moisture in your samples by measuring the loss in mass between an as-mined sample and a sample that has been heated under controlled conditions to drive off the water that is not contained within the chemical structure of the coal. It is important to measure the sulfur content in coal samples to evaluate the potential sulfur emissions from coal combustion, or for contract specifications purposes. SGS has the facilities and the know-how to provide you with timely accurate results.

The calorific value of coal or coke is the heat liberated when the solid fuel undergoes complete combustion in oxygen. In order to obtain accurate results, SGS burns your fuel sample in a bomb calorimeter and measures the total heat energy. Volatile matter includes the components of coal, except for water, which are liberated at high temperature in the absence of oxygen. Volatile matter is a key health and safety concern as coals high in volatiles have an increased risk of spontaneous combustion. SGS determines the volatile matter in your coal sample by measuring the mass of volatiles before and after weight analysis under strictly controlled conditions.

The fixed carbon content of coal is determined by subtracting the percentages of moisture, volatile matter and ash from the original mass of the coal sample: the solid combustible residue that remains after a coal has had the volatiles driven off. SGS experts conduct a fixed carbon test to estimate of the amount of coke your coal sample will yield. SGS conducts a variety of fundamental ash analysis tests including ash elemental tests, ash fusion tests and coal ash analysis. Ultimate Analysis Tests Ultimate analysis tests produce more comprehensive results than the proximate analyses. We determine each element through chemical analysis and express it as a percentage of the total mass of the original coal or coke sample.